thrips as pests unique features classification host range Scope of this work

Thrips as pests
Adult and larval thrips damage plants through both direct feeding and the introduction of tospoviruses. All Thysanoptera have suctorial mouthparts comprising paired, needle-like maxillary laciniae that are co-adapted with tongue-and-grooved margins to enclose a single channel. Only the left mandible is developed, and this is used merely to puncture plant cells prior to their contents being ingested through the feeding tube provided by the maxillary stylets. In contrast, bug species, members of the order Hemiptera, have suctorial mouthparts that involve two mandibular and two maxillary stylets, and these enclose separate channels for saliva injection and food ingestion.

Thrips damage: leaf and blossom damage of a) Chrysanthemum (Thrips tabaci), b) Ficus and c) Phaseolus (Frankliniella occidentalis) (photos: G. Moritz).
Frankliniella occidentalis: leaf and fruit damage of pepper (a and b), c) and d) head, ventral with typical mouthparts forming the hypognath mouthcone, labial palps, paraglossae and stylets (SEM, see Moritz 1997) (photos: G. Moritz).
Feeding by thrips on young leaves commonly results in these becoming distorted; in extreme instances this can result in stunting of a plant or even in defoliation. The distorted and partially chlorotic leaves of such plants can appear to have been attacked by a virus, but this leaf damage, presumably caused by toxic saliva, should be distinguished from true viral infection (see tospovirus vectors). Lewis (1997) gives an extensive overview and bibliography of the biology of thrips, with particular reference to species associated with crop plants.
about thrips
unique features
host range