Fig. 1: Antenna
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Fore- and hindwing, base of fore wing with alula
Fig. 6: Sternites III-V
Fig. 7: Tergites III-V
Fig. 8: Tergites VIII-X
Caliothrips indicus (Bagnall, 1913)
Heliothrips indicus Bagnall, 1913
Sesbania or groundnut thrips
Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Panchaetothripinae Bagnall, 1912
Genus: Caliothrips Daniel, 1904
Species RecognitionGeneral information about the genus Caliothrips:
Members of this genus are dark brown, contain heavy net-like sculpture with internal markings, and have banded wings and 8 antennal segments. Most of the species in this group are found living in grasses and legumes.
Typical character states of Caliothrips indicus:
Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment IV - forked sensorium: extending to a point at least 30% distal to base of segment V
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and forked
Terminal antennal segments: very long, needle like
Head shape between compound eyes: not prolonged
Sculptured reticles on head and pronotum: with internal sculptured markings
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs: with strong reticulate sculpture, but sometimes irregular
Head posteriorly: not constricted
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 0-3
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 0
Sculptur of pronotum: without transverse striate sculpture
Mesothoracic endofurca: without median spinula
Metanotum: with campaniform sensilla
Metanotum median area: with at least some equiangular reticulation
Metanotum sculpture: without dominant sculptured triangle medially
Metathoracic endofurca: elongate and lyre-shape
Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing: close to or fused to costal vein
Forewing anterior margin: with setae and cilia but setae longer than cilia
Forewing color: alternating bands of dark and light
Forewing costal setae at middle of wing: longer than median width of wing
Forewing first vein setal row: incomplete, with setae not closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia: undulated near apex
Forewing second vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface: not reticulate
Forewings: with veins, setae and microtrichia
Mid and hind tarsi: with one segment
Abdominal segment X: never tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal tergites: without curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair: much shorter than distance between their bases
Setae on abdominal tergite X: slender
Tergite VIII posteromarginal comb of microtrichia: present laterally, incomplete medially
Tergites III to VI sculpture on lateral thirds: comprising mainly oblique reticulations
Probably similar to the longevity of Caliothrips fasciatus larvae ranging from 0-14 days and adults ranging from 7-15 days both dependent on temperature (Lewis 1973).
Aubergine, groundnut, soybean, peas, clover and flax
Current known distribution:
Ahmad, M (1976): Studies
on host range of pea thrip (Caliothrips indicus). - Fao Plant
Protection Bulletin 24 (3): 83-85.
Daniel, AM, Bakthavatsalam, N & Kumar, NS (1984): Weed-crop interaction with reference to Caliothrips indicus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on Arachis-Hypogaea Willd (Fabaceae) and an alternate weed host Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amarantaceae). - Entomon 9 (1): 47-51.
Lewis, T (1973): Thrips. Their Biology, Ecology and Economic Importance. Academic Press, New York, xvi, 350 ppg.
Moritz G, Morris DC, Mound LA (2001): ThripsID - Pest thrips of the world. ACIAR and CSIRO Publishing Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, CDROM ISBN 1 86320 296 X.
Moritz G, Mound LA, Morris DC, Goldarazena A (2004): Pest thrips of the world - an identification and information system using molecular and microscopial methods. CBIT, University of Queensland,CDROM ISBN 1-86499-781-8.
Mound, LA & Marullo R (1996): The thrips of Central and South America: An Introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Associated Publishers, Gainesville.
Mound, LA & Kibby, G (1998): Thysanoptera: An identification guide, (2nd edition). CAB International, Wallingford and New York, 70pp.
Nandagopal, V & Vasantha, S (1991): Influence of Plant-Growth Regulators on the Population of Thrips Caliothrips indicus (Bagnall) and Damage in Groundnut. - Entomon 16 (1): 87-89.
Palmer, JM, Mound, LA & Du Heaume, GJ (1989): 2. Thysanoptera, pp. 73. In Betts CR [ed.], CIE Guides to Insects of Important to Man. CAB International, Wallingford.
Stannard, LJ (1968): The thrips, or Thysanoptera, of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 29: 215-552.
Vaishamp, SM, Singh, Z & Seshagira, A (1968): Studies on Caliothrips (=Thrips) indicus Bagnall and a Note on Assessment of ITS Damage to Pea Crop. - Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 38 (2): 295pp.
Mound, LA (2005): Thysanoptera (Thrips) of the World - A Checklist. http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html