Fig. 1: Antenna (inset: IV. and V. antennal segment)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Fore- and hindwing, base of fore wing with alula
Fig. 6: Tergites VII-IX
Fig. 7: Tergites VIII-X
Fig. 8: Tergites VIII-X
Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton, 1907)
Anaphothrips orchidii Priesner, 1925
Taeniothrips orchidii van Eecke, 1922
Euthrips marginemtorquens Karny, 1914
Physothrips orchidii Karny, 1912
Euthrips orchidii Moulton, 1907
Banana rust thrips
Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Panchaetothripinae Bagnall, 1912
Genus: Chaetanaphothrips Priesner, 1926
Species RecognitionGeneral information about the genus Chaetanaphothrips:
This genus contains individuals that are pale in color, some with dark markings on their wings and all with eight segmented antennae. There are only twenty species in this genus and most are found in Southeast Asia. All of the species in this genus contain large stipple-like areas on tergite VIII. There are four species in this genus that are considered pests and two are found more commonly and are included in this key.
Typical character states of Chaetanaphothrips orchidii:
Mainly pale or yellow, with some darker markings
Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment IV - forked sensorium: scarcely extending beyond base of segment V
Segments II and III shape: more or less symmetric
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and forked
Base of sensorium on antennal segment VI: no more than 2 times as wide as base of nearest seta
Terminal antennal segments: rarely elongate
Distance between bases of ocellar setae III: less than width of first ocellus
Head shape between compound eyes: not prolonged
Ocellar setae III on head: arising within ocellar triangle anterior to tangent of anterior margin of hind ocelli
Postocular setae I: absent
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs: without strong reticulate sculpture
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 0-3
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 2
Pronotum shape: rectangular
Number of pairs of pronotum posteromarginal minor setae: 2-3
Number of pairs of pronotum anteromarginal minor setae: 2-3
Mesothoracic endofurca: with median spinula
Metanotal median area sculptured lines: transverse at anterior, but with irregular equiangular reticulation near posterior
Metanotal median setae length: shorter than lateral metanotal setae
Metanotal median setae position: arising behind anterior margin
Metanotum: without campaniform sensilla
Metanotum major sclerite: with two major sclerites, metascutum and metascutellum
Metanotum median area: with at least some equiangular reticulation
Metanotum sculpture: without dominant sculptured triangle medially
Metathoracic endofurca: transverse, sometimes with simple median spinula
Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing: distinct from costal vein
Forewing anterior margin: with setae and cilia but cilia longer than setae
Forewing color: alternating bands of dark and light
Forewing costal fringe of cilia: arising at anterior margin of wing
Forewing costal setae at middle of wing: shorter than median width of wing
Forewing first vein setal row: incomplete, with setae not closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia: undulated near apex
Forewing second vein setal row: incomplete, with setae not closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface: not reticulate
Forewings: with veins, setae and microtrichia
Fore tibial apex: not extending around fore tarsus
Mid and hind tarsi: with two segments
Abdominal pleurotergites: not covered in microtrichia
Abdominal segment X: never tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal sternite II: with 1 or 2 discal setae in addition to marginal setae
Abdominal sternite III of female: without glandular areas
Abdominal sternite VII median marginal setae: arising in front of margin
Abdominal sternites IV , V and VI: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Number of lateral marginal setae on abdominal tergite II: 3
Abdominal tergites: without curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair: much shorter than distance between their bases
Abdominal tergites V-VII: without paired ctenidia, sometimes with irregular microtrichia
Markings on tergites IV to VI: with no shaded areas on tergites and antecostal ridges
Setae on abdominal tergite X: slender
Surface of lateral thirds of abdominal tergites: without regular rows of fine microtrichia
Ctenidia on tergite VIII: not present, but groups of microtrichia
Tergite VIII posteromarginal comb of microtrichia: absent or present laterally, incomplete medially
Males are unknown. Females lay an average of 80-100 eggs and the life cycle from egg to adult lasts about one month dependent upon temperature and can extend throughout the year in greenhouses (Pelikan, 1954).
Anthurium, orchids, banana, citrus
Current known distribution:
Tropical regions worldwide
Chaetanaphothrips (species undetermined) have been intercepted at U.S. ports of entry. Thrips feeding results in russeted patches 'banana rust' on banana plants and fruit and this type of damage can be found on other fruits as well (Childers, 1997). Young leaves and floral buds on Anthurium, orchids and citrus become streaked with white and distorted. Scaring of citrus fruit from thrips feeding is also a problem in citrus growing regions.
Braman, SK & Beshear, RJ (1994): Seasonality
of predaceous plant bugs (Heteroptera, Miridae) and phytophagous thrips
(Thysanoptera, Thripidae) as influenced by host-plant phenology of
native Azaleas (Ericales, Ericaceae). - Environmental Entomology 23
Childers, CC (1997): Feeding and oviposition injuries to plants. In: Lewis T (Ed.), Thrips as crop pests. Wallingford, Oxon, 505-537.
Childers, CC & Nakahara, S (2006): Thysanoptera (thrips) within citrus orchards in Florida: Species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, and species on vines and ground cover plants. - Journal of Insect Science 6.
Cavallari, A, Rornanowski, HP & Redaelli, LR (2006): Thrips species (Insecta, Thysanoptera) inhabiting plants of the Parque Estadual de Itapua, Viamao, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. - Revista Brasileira De Zoologia 23 (2): 367-374.
Delattre, P & Torregrossa, JP (1978): Seasonal abundance, distribution and population movements of Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton) (Thysanoptera-Thripidae in French Antilles. - Annales De Zoologie Ecologie Animale 10 (2): 149-169.
Hata, TY & Hara, AH (1992): Anthurium-Thrips, Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton) - Biology and insecticidal control on Hawaiian Anthuriums. - Tropical Pest Management 38 (3): 230-233.
Moritz G, Morris DC, Mound LA (2001): ThripsID - Pest thrips of the world. ACIAR and CSIRO Publishing Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, CDROM ISBN 1 86320 296 X.
Moritz G, Mound LA, Morris DC, Goldarazena A (2004): Pest thrips of the world - an identification and information system using molecular and microscopial methods. CBIT, University of Queensland,CDROM ISBN 1-86499-781-8.
Mound, LA & Marullo, R (1996): The thrips of Central and South America: An Introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Associated Publishers, Gainesville.
Mound, LA & Kibby, G (1998): Thysanoptera: An identification guide, (2nd edition). CAB International, Wallingford and New York, 70pp.
Pelikán, J (1954): Remarks on the orchid thrips Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (M.). Folia Zoologica et Entomologica. 3(17):3-12.
Palmer, JM, Mound, LA & Du Heaume, GJ (1989): 2. Thysanoptera, pp. 73. In Betts, CR [ed.], CIE Guides to Insects of Important to Man. CAB International, Wallingford.
Stannard, LJ (1968): The thrips, or Thysanoptera, of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 29: 215-552.
Mound, LA (2005): Thysanoptera (Thrips) of the World - A Checklist. http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html