a b c d e f g h empty empty k l m n o p empty r s t empty empty empty empty empty empty
Frankliniella bispinosa
Fig. 1

Antenna

Fig. 2

Head

Fig. 3

Pronotum

Fig. 4

Pteronotum

Fig. 5

Forewing

Fig. 6

Sternites 4-5

Fig. 7

Tergites 5-6

Fig. 8

Tergite 8-9

Fig. 9

CS249/CS250

Fig. 10

O1/18J

Fig. 11

P1/28Z

Fig. 12

18SMP/28SMP

Figures

Fig. 1: Antenna (inset: II. and III. antennal segment, pedicel)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Fore- and hindwing
Fig. 6: Sternites IV and V
Fig. 7: Tergites V and VI
Fig. 8: Tergites VIII-X

ITS-RFLP gel patterns (1&8 ladder, 2 PCR-product, 3 RSAI, 4 HaeIII, 5 MspI, 6 HinfI, 7 AluI)
Fig. 9: Primer pair CS249/CS250
Fig. 10: Primer pair O1/18J
Fig. 11: Primer pair P1/28Z
Fig. 12: Primer pair 18SMP/28SMP

Taxonomic Information

Species:
Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan, 1913)

Synonyms:
Euthrips masoni Watson, 1919 
Euthrips projectus Watson, 1915 
Euthrips tritici bispinosus Morgan, 1913

Common name:
Southern flower thrips
Florida flower thrips

Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Thripinae (Stephens) Karny, 1921
Genus: Frankliniella Karny, 1910

top

Species Recognition

General information about the genus Frankliniella:
The members in this genus are sometimes quite difficult to separate from one another and the classification has been in flux with many species later synonymized in association with color variations. There are about 180 species in this genus most having three pairs of ocellar setae well developed, 8 segmented antennae with III and IV having forked sense cones, well developed setae on the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum, when present wings with complete rows of setae on the wing veins, two segmented tarsi, without accessory setae on abdominal sternites, with a ctenidia laterally on abdominal segments with ctenidia anterior to spiracle on segment VIII and with males generally smaller and paler than the females (Stannard, 1968).

Typical character states of Frankliniella bispinosa:

Body color
Mainly pale or yellow, with some darker markings

Antennae
Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment IV - forked sensorium: scarcely extending beyond base of segment V
Segments II and III shape: more or less symmetric
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and forked
Base of sensorium on antennal segment VI: no more than 2 times as wide as base of nearest seta
Terminal antennal segments: rarely elongate
Shape of pedicel of antennal segment III: swollen, with sharp-edged disc surmounted by chalice-shaped collar

Head:
Distance between bases of ocellar setae III: greater than width of first ocellus
Head shape between compound eyes: not prolonged
Major postocular setae: less than half as long as ocellar setae III
Ocellar setae III on head: arising on anterior margin of, or in front of, ocellar triangle
Postocular setae I: present
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs: without strong reticulate sculpture
Ocellar setae I in front of anterior ocellus: present

Prothorax
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 4-5
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 2
Pronotum shape: rectangular
Number of pairs of pronotum posteromarginal minor setae: 4-6
Number of pairs of pronotum anteromarginal minor setae: 2

Mesothorax
Mesothoracic endofurca: with median spinula

Metathorax
Metanotal median area sculptured lines: transverse at anterior, but forming irregular longitudinal reticulations on posterior half
Metanotal median setae length: longer than lateral metanotal setae
Metanotal median setae position: arising at anterior margin
Metanotum: with campaniform sensilla
Metanotum major sclerite: with two major sclerites, metascutum and metascutellum
Metanotum median area: with no equiangular reticulation
Metanotum sculpture: without dominant sculptured triangle medially
Metathoracic endofurca: transverse, sometimes with simple median spinula

Wings
Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing: distinct from costal vein
Forewing anterior margin: with setae and cilia but cilia longer than setae
Forewing color: uniformly pale or weakly shaded
Forewing costal fringe of cilia: arising at anterior margin of wing
Forewing first vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia: undulated near apex
Forewing second vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface: not reticulate
Forewings: with veins, setae and microtrichia

Legs
Fore tibial apex: not extending around fore tarsus
Mid and hind tarsi: with two segments

Abdomen:
Abdominal pleurotergites: not covered in microtrichia
Abdominal segment X: never tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal sternite II: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite III of female: without glandular areas
Abdominal sternite VII: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite VII median marginal setae: arising at margin - arising in front of margin
Abdominal sternites IV , V and VI: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal tergites: without curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair: much shorter than distance between their bases
Abdominal tergites V-VII: with pair of ctenidia laterally
Setae on abdominal tergite X: slender
Surface of lateral thirds of abdominal tergites: without regular rows of fine microtrichia
Ctenidia on tergite VIII: anterolaterad to spiracle
Tergite VIII posteromarginal comb of microtrichia: present laterally, incomplete medially
Tergite VIII posteromarginal microtrichia: very short on broadly triangular bases

top

Biology

Life history:
As with other thrips species the life cycle from egg to adult is dependent on temperature. The full cycle for Frankliniella occidentalis can take less than one week to over a month and adults may live for more than one month producing several generations in one year depending on seasonal weather (Lewis, 1973).

Host plants:
Polyphagous

Vector capacity:
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

Current known distribution:
Central and South America, Southeastern North America

Additional notes:
It has been documented that this species lays eggs in the pistil, calyx, petals and filaments of citrus flowers (Childers and Achor, 1991).  In Florida F. bispinosa feeds on the anthers, petals, pistils and calyces of citrus flowers causing severe injury to citrus fruit production in that region (Childers, 1997). Damage results in fruit scarring with brown ring spots on calyx, fruit surface becomes bronzed and silvered, leaves become crinkled with ragged edges and flower are discolored.

Bibliography

Avila, Y, Stavisky, J, Hague, S, Funderburk, J, Reitz, S & Momol, T (2006): Evaluation of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) as a vector of the Tomato spotted wilt virus in pepper. - Florida Entomologist 89 (2): 204-207.
Buntin, GD & Beshear, RJ (1995):
Seasonal abundance of thrips (Thysanoptera) on winter small grains in Georgia. - Environmental Entomology 24 (5): 1216-1223.
Chellemi, DO, Funderburk, JE & Hall, DW (1994):
Seasonal abundance of flower-inhabiting Frankliniella species (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on wild plant species. - Environmental Entomology 23 (2): 337-342.
Childers, CC & Achor, DS (1991):
Feeding and ovipostion injury in flowers and developing floral buds of naval orange by Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Florida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 84 (3): 272-282. 
Childers, CC (1997): Feeding and oviposition injuries to plants. Chapter 13, In Thrips as crop pests Ed. T. Lewis. 505-537.
Childers, CC (1992): Suppression of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides, with pesticides during the bloom cycle and improved fruit set on naval orange in Florida. - Journal of Economic Entomology 85 (4): 1330-1339.
Childers, CC (1993):
Trap designs for monitoring emergence of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from soil in citrus groves. - Canadian Entomologist 125 (3): 449-456.
Childers, CC & Abou-Setta, MM (1999):
Yield reduction in 'Tahiti' lime from Panonychus citri feeding injury following different pesticide treatment regimes and impact on the associated predacious mites. - Experimental and Applied Acarology 23 (10): 771-783.
Childers, CC & Achor, DS (1991):
Feeding and oviposition injury to flowers and developing floral buds of navel orange by Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in Florida. - Annals of the Entomological Society of America 84 (3): 272-282.
Childers, CC & Beshear, RJ (1992):
Thrips (Thysanoptera) species associated with developing citrus flowers in Florida and a key to adult Terebrantian females. - Journal of Entomological Science 27 (4): 392-412.
Childers, CC, Beshear, RJ, Frantz, G & Nelms, M (2005):
A review of thrips species biting man including records in Florida and Georgia between 1986-1997. - Florida Entomologist 88 (4): 447-451.
Childers, CC & Brecht, JK (1996):
Colored sticky traps for monitoring Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) during flowering cycles in citrus. - Journal of Economic Entomology 89 (5): 1240-1249.
Childers, CC & Bullock, RC (1999):
Controlling Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on Florida citrus during bloom and increased fruit set on navel and 'Valencia' oranges. - Florida Entomologist 82 (3): 410-424.
Childers, CC & Nakahara, S (2006):
Thysanoptera (thrips) within citrus orchards in Florida: Species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, and species on vines and ground cover plants. - Journal of Insect Science 6.
Childers, CC, Nakahara, S & Beshear, RJ (1994):
Relative abundance of Frankliniella bispinosa and other species of Thysanoptera emerging from soil beneath navel orange trees in Florida during spring flowering. - Journal of Entomological Science 29 (3): 318-329.
Childers, CC, Nakahara, S & Beshear, RJ (1998):
Thysanoptera collected during bloom on white and colored disposable sticky cards in Florida citrus groves. - Journal of Entomological Science 33 (1): 49-71.
Funderburk, J, Stavisky, J & Olson, S (2000):
Predation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in field peppers by Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera : Anthocoridae). - Environmental Entomology 29 (2): 376-382.
Howard, FW, Nakahara, S & Williams, DS (1995):
Thysanoptera as apparent pollinators of West-Indies Mahogany, Swietenia-Mahagoni (Meliaceae). - Annales Des Sciences Forestieres 52 (3): 283-286.
Lewis, T (1973):
Thrips. Their Biology, Ecology and Economic Importance. Academic Press, New York, xvi, 350 ppg.
Mc Pherson, RM, Beshear, RJ & Culbreath, AK (1992): Seasonal abundance of Thrips (Thysanoptera, suborders Terebrantia and Tubulifera) in Georgia Flue-Cured Tobacco and impact of Management-Practices on the incidence of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus. - Journal of Entomological Science 27 (3): 257-268.
Mc Pherson, RM, Jones, DC, Bertrand, PF & Csinos, AS (2002):
Impact of thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) management practices on suppression of tomato spotted wilt virus and aphid (Homoptera : Aphididae) control in flue-cured tobacco. - Journal of Entomological Science 37 (2): 143-153.
Mc Pherson, RM, Jones, DC, Pappu, HR & Moore, JM (2003):
Reducing the risks of spotted wilt virus in tobacco with selected thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) control practices. - Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 20 (1): 11-23.
Mc Pherson, RM, Pappu, HR & Jones, DC (1999):
Occurrence of five thrips species on flue-cured tobacco and impact on spotted wilt disease incidence in Georgia. - Plant Disease 83 (8): 765-767.
Mc Pherson, RM & Riley, DC (2006):
Monitoring thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) presence in flue-cured tobacco using yellow sticky traps. - Journal of Entomological Science 41 (2): 170-178.
Merkel, EP, Fatzinger, CW & Dixon, WN (1994):
Keys for Distinguishing Thrips (Thysanoptera) Commonly Found on Slash Pine in Florida. - Journal of Entomological Science 29 (1): 92-99.
Momol, MT, Olson, SM, Funderburk, JE, Stavisky, J & Marois, JJ (2004):
Integrated management of tomato spotted wilt on field-grown tomatoes. - Plant Disease 88 (8): 882-890.
Moritz G, Morris DC, Mound LA (2001): ThripsID -
Pest thrips of the world. ACIAR and CSIRO Publishing Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, CDROM ISBN 1 86320 296 X.
Moritz G, Mound LA, Morris DC, Goldarazena A (2004):
Pest thrips of the world - an identification and information system using molecular and microscopial methods. CBIT, University of Queensland,CDROM ISBN 1-86499-781-8.

Mound, LA & Marullo, R (1996): The thrips of Central and South America: An introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Associated Publishers, Gainesville.
Nakahara, S (1992): New synonyms of Frankliniella bondari and a review of the synonyms of F. cephalica (Thysanoptera, Thripidae). - Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100 (3): 415-417.
Northfield, TD, Paini, DR, Funderburk, JE & Reitz, SR (2008):
Annual cycles of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) thrips abundance on North Florida uncultivated reproductive hosts: Predicting possible sources of pest outbreaks. - Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101 (4): 769-778.
O'Donnell, CA, Mound, LA and Parrella, MP (2001):
A multilevel identification system for thrips associated with flower crops in North America. http://bohart.ucdavis.edu/Docs/Key_Thrips.pdf.
Paini, DR, Funderburk, JE, Jackson, CT & Reitz, SR (2007): Reproduction of four thrips species (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on uncultivated hosts. - Journal of Entomological Science 42 (4): 610-615.
Reitz, SR (2002):
Seasonal and within plant distribution of Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in north Florida tomatoes. - Florida Entomologist 85 (3): 431-439.
Reitz, SR, Funderburk, JE & Warning, SM (2006):
Differential predation by the generalist predator Orius insidiosus on congeneric species of thrips that vary in size and behavior. - Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 119 (3): 179-188.
Reitz, SR, Maiorino, G, Olson, S, Sprenkel, R, Crescenzi, A & Momol, MT (2008):
Integrating plant essential oils and kaolin for the sustainable management of thrips and tomato spotted wilt on tomato. - Plant Disease 92 (6): 878-886.
Reitz, SR, Yearby, EL, Funderburk, JE, Stavisky, J, Momol, MT & Olson, SM (2003): Integrated management tactics for Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in field-grown pepper. - Journal of Economic Entomology 96 (4): 1201-1214.
Sakimura K & OŽNeill K (1979):
Frankliniella, redefinition of genus and revision of the minuta -group species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Techn. Bull. 1572: 1-49.
Stannard, LJ (1968): The thrips, or Thysanoptera, of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 29: 215-552.

Links:
Mound, LA (2005): Thysanoptera (Thrips) of the World - A Checklist. http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html

top