a b c d e f g h empty empty k l m n o p empty r s t empty empty empty empty empty empty
Frankliniella occidentalis
Fig. 1

Antenna

Fig. 2

Head

Fig. 3

Pronotum

Fig. 4

Pteronotum

Fig. 5

Forewing

Fig. 6

Tergites 4-5

Fig. 7

Sternites 4-5

Fig. 8

Tergites 8-9

Fig. 9

CS249/CS250

Fig. 10

O1/18J

Fig. 11

P1/28Z

Fig. 12

18SMP/28SMP

Figures

Fig.á1: Antenna (inset: III. antennal segment)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Forewing
Fig. 6:áTergites IV and V
Fig. 7:áSternites IV and V
Fig. 8:áTergites VIII and IX

ITS-RFLP gel patterns (1&8 ladder, 2 PCR-product, 3 RSAI, 4 HaeIII, 5 MspI, 6 HinfI, 7 AluI)
Fig. 9: Primer pair CS249/CS250
Fig. 10: Primer pair O1/18J
Fig. 11: Primer pair P1/28Z
Fig. 12: Primer pair 18SMP/28SMP

Taxonomic Information

Species:
Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895)

Synonyms:
Frankliniella helianthi Blunck & Neu, 1949
Frankliniella dahliae Moulton, 1948 
Frankliniella dianthi Moulton, 1948 
Frankliniella syringae Moulton, 1948 
Frankliniella umbrosa Moulton, 1948 
Frankliniella chrysanthemi Kurosawa, 1941 
Frankliniella obscura Moulton, 1936
Frankliniella venusta Moulton, 1936 
Frankliniella conspicua Moulton, 1936 
Frankliniella occidentalis brunnescens Priesner, 1932 
Frankliniella occidentlis dubia Priesner, 1932 
Frankliniella claripennis Morgan, 1925
Frankliniella canadensis Morgan, 1925 
Frankliniella trehernei Morgan, 1925 
Frankliniella tritici maculata Priesner, 1925
Frankliniella moultoni Hood, 1924
Frankliniella nubila Treherne, 1924 
Frankliniella tritici moultoni Hood, 1914 
Euthrips helianthi Moulton, 1911
Euthrips tritici californicus Moulton, 1911 
Euthrips occidentalis Pergande, 1895

Common name:
Western Flower Thrips

Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Thripinae (Stephens) Karny, 1921
Genus: Frankliniella Karny, 1910

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Species Recognition

General information about the genus Frankliniella:
The members in this genus are sometimes quite difficult to separate from one another and the classification has been in flux with many species later synonymizedáin association with color variations. There are about 180 speciesáin this genus most having three pairs of ocellar setae well developed, 8 segmented antennae with III and IVáhaving forked sense cones, well developed setae on the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum, when present wings with complete rows of setaeáon the wing veins, two segmented tarsi, without accessory setae on abdominal sternites, with a ctenidia laterally on abdominal segments with ctenidia anterior to spiracle on segment VIII and with males generally smaller and paler than the females (Stannard, 1968).

Typical character states of Frankliniella oocidentalis:

Body color
Mainly brown or mainly pale or yellow,áwith some darker markingsáorábicolored

Antennae
Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment IV - forked sensorium:áscarcely extending beyond base of segment V
Segments II and III shape:ámore or less symmetric
Segments III & IV sensoria:áemergent and forked
Base of sensorium on antennal segment VI:áno more than 2 times as wide as base of nearest seta
Terminal antennal segments:árarely elongate
Shape of pedicel of antennal segment III:ásimple

Head:
Distance between bases of ocellar setae III:ágreater than width of first ocellus
Head shape between compound eyes:ánot prolonged
Major postocular setae:ámore than half as long as ocellar setae III
Ocellar setae III on head: arising on anterior margin of, or in front of, ocellar triangle
Postocular setae I:ápresent
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs:áwithout strong reticulate sculpture
Ocellar setae I in front of anterior ocellus: present

Prothorax
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 4-5
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 2
Pronotum shape:árectangular
Number of pairs of pronotum posteromarginal minor setae:5-6
Number of pairs of pronotum anteromarginal minor setae: 2

Mesothorax
Mesothoracic endofurca:áwith median spinula

Metathorax
Metanotal median area sculptured lines:áátransverse at anterior, but forming irregular longitudinal reticulations on posterior half
Metanotal median setae length:álonger than lateral metanotal setae
Metanotal median setae position:áarising at anterior margin
Metanotum:áwith campaniform sensilla
Metanotum major sclerite:áwith two major sclerites, metascutum and metascutellum
Metanotum median area:áwith at least some or with no equiangular reticulation
Metanotum sculpture:áwithout dominant sculptured triangle medially
Metathoracic endofurca:átransverse, sometimes with simple median spinula

Wings
Wings:ápresent and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing:ádistinct from costal vein
Forewing anterior margin:áwith setae and cilia but cilia longer than setae
Forewing color:áuniformly pale or weakly shaded
Forewing costal fringe of cilia:áarising at anterior margin of wing
Forewing first vein setal row:ácomplete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia:áundulated near apex
Forewing second vein setal row:ácomplete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface:ánot reticulate
Forewings:áwith veins, setae and microtrichia

Legs
Fore tibial apex:ánot extending around fore tarsus
Mid and hind tarsi:áwith two segments

Abdomen:
Abdominal pleurotergites:á not covered in microtrichia
Abdominal segment X:ánever tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal sternite II:áwith marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite III of female:áwithout glandular areas
Abdominal sternite VII:áwith marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite VII median marginal setae:áarising at margin -áarising in front of margin
Abdominal sternites IV , V and VI:áwith marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal tergites:áwithout curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair:ámuch shorter than distance between their bases
Abdominal tergites V-VII:áwith pair of ctenidia laterally
Setae on abdominal tergite X:áslender
Surface of lateral thirds of abdominal tergites:áwithout regular rows of fine microtrichia
Ctenidia on tergite VIII:ááanterolaterad to spiracle
Tergite VIII posteromarginal comb of microtrichia:ápresent, complete medially
Tergite VIII posteromarginal microtrichia:álong, slender, irregularáon broadly triangular bases

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Biology

Life history:
Dependent onátemperature, life cycle from egg to adult can range from 15 (30░)áto 44 (15░C)ádays and adults can live forá28 to 71 days. The number of eggs that an adult thrips may lay can range from 24 to 96 and can produce 12-15 generations in constant warm temperatures such as in greenhouses.

Host plants:
Polyphagous, feeds on all plant parts i.e., flowers, fruit, seeds,ástems and leaves ofánumerous plant material such as vegetables, fruits, potted flowering plants and nursery stock.á

Vector capacity:
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)
Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV)
Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV)
Tomato chlorotic spot virusá(TCSV)
Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virusá(CSNV)

Also known to transmit Fusarium moniliforme (a fungus that causes ear rot of corn) and Erwinia amylovora (fire blight bacteria).

Current known distribution:
Widespread around the world.

Additional notes:
Deformation of young seedlings and fruit and discoloration, silvering and bleaching of leaves, flowers and fruit. Fruits scarred very early in development causing disfigurement as fruit expands.
Beneficial aspects: Feeds on mite eggs.

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Links:
Mound, LA (2005): Thysanoptera (Thrips) of the World - A Checklist. http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html

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