Fig. 1: Antenna (inset: III. and IV. antennal segment)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Forewing
Fig. 6: Sternite VII
Fig. 7: Tergites VIII and IX
Fig. 8: Tergite VIII, comb
ITS-RFLP gel patterns (1&8 ladder, 2 PCR-product, 3 RSAI, 4 HaeIII, 5 MspI, 6 HinfI, 7 AluI)
Fig. 9: Primer pair CS249/CS250
Fig. 10: Primer pair O1/18J
Fig. 11: Primer pair P1/28Z
Fig. 12: Primer pair 18SMP/28SMP
Frankliniella tritici (Fitch, 1855)
Frankliniella clara Moulton, 1948
Frankliniella salicis Moulton, 1948
Frankliniella fulvus Moulton, 1936
Frankliniella bispinosus Watson, 1921
Frankliniella varicorne Bagnall, 1919
Euthrips tritici Hinds, 1902
Thrips tritici Fitch, 1855
Eastern flower thrips
Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Thripinae (Stephens) Karny, 1921
Genus: Frankliniella Karny, 1910
Species RecognitionGeneral information about the genus Frankliniella:
The members in this genus are sometimes quite difficult to separate from one another and the classification has been in flux with many species later synonymized in association with color variations. There are about 180 species in this genus most having three pairs of ocellar setae well developed, 8 segmented antennae with III and IV having forked sense cones, well developed setae on the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum, when present wings with complete rows of setae on the wing veins, two segmented tarsi, without accessory setae on abdominal sternites, with a ctenidia laterally on abdominal segments with ctenidia anterior to spiracle on segment VIII and with males generally smaller and paler than the females (Stannard, 1968).
Typical character states of Frankliniella tritici:
Mainly pale or yellow, with some darker markings or bicolored
Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment IV - forked sensorium: scarcely extending beyond base of segment V
Segments II and III shape: more or less symmetric
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and forked
Base of sensorium on antennal segment VI: no more than 2 times as wide as base of nearest seta
Terminal antennal segments: rarely elongate
Shape of pedicel of antennal segment III: weakly swollen, with edges more or less sharp
Distance between bases of ocellar setae III: greater than width of first ocellus
Head shape between compound eyes: not prolonged
Major postocular setae: less than half as long as ocellar setae III
Ocellar setae III on head: arising on anterior margin of, or in front of, ocellar triangle
Postocular setae I:present
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs: without strong reticulate sculpture
Ocellar setae I in front of anterior ocellus: present
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 4-5
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 2
Pronotum shape: rectangular
Number of pairs of pronotum posteromarginal minor setae: 4-5
Number of pairs of pronotum anteromarginal minor setae: 1-2
Mesothoracic endofurca: with median spinula
Metanotal median area sculptured lines: transverse at anterior, but forming irregular longitudinal reticulations on posterior half
Metanotal median setae length: longer than lateral metanotal setae
Metanotal median setae position: arising at anterior margin
Metanotum: with campaniform sensilla
Metanotum major sclerite: with two major sclerites, metascutum and metascutellum
Metanotum median area: with no equiangular reticulation
Metanotum sculpture: without dominant sculptured triangle medially
Metathoracic endofurca: transverse, sometimes with simple median spinula
Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing: distinct from costal vein
Forewing anterior margin: with setae and cilia but cilia longer than setae
Forewing color: uniformly pale or weakly shaded
Forewing costal fringe of cilia: arising at anterior margin of wing
Forewing first vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia: undulated near apex
Forewing second vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface: not reticulate
Forewings: with veins, setae and microtrichia
Fore tibial apex: not extending around fore tarsus
Mid and hind tarsi: with two segments
Abdominal pleurotergites: not covered in microtrichia
Abdominal segment X: never tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal sternite II: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite III of female: without glandular areas
Abdominal sternite VII: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite VII median marginal setae: arising at margin - arising in front of margin
Abdominal sternites IV , V and VI: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal tergites: without curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair: much shorter than distance between their bases
Abdominal tergites V-VII: with pair of ctenidia laterally
Setae on abdominal tergite X: slender
Surface of lateral thirds of abdominal tergites: without regular rows of fine microtrichia
Ctenidia on tergite VIII: anterolaterad to spiracle
Tergite VIII posteromarginal comb of microtrichia: present laterally, incomplete medially
Tergite VIII posteromarginal microtrichia: short and irregular in length
As with other thrips species the life cycle from egg to adult is dependent on temperature. The full cycle for Frankliniella occidentalis can take less than one week to over a month and adults may live for more than one month producing several generations in one year depending on seasonal weather (Lewis, 1973).
Polyphagous, flowers, fruits
Current known distribution:
Discoloration and distortion of flowers and buds. Silvered surface blemishes on fruit. Leaves crinkled, with ragged edges. Known to cause "buttoning" or blight on strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries (Stannard, 1968).
Assis, FM, Stavisky, J, Reitz,
SR, Deom, CM & Sherwood,
JL (2004): Vector incompetence of Frankliniella
tritici is not associated
with a barrier to midgut infection by Tomato spotted wilt virus. - Phytopathology
94 (6): S5-S5.
Baez, I, Reitz, SE & Funderburk, JE (2004): Predation by Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera : Anthocoridae) on life stages and species of Frankliniella flower thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in pepper flowers. - Environmental Entomology 33 (3): 662-670.
Barney, RJ, Roberts, SJ, Pausch, RD & Armbrust, EJ (1979): Impact of prey age and temperature on predation by the Eastern Flower Thrips, Frankliniella tritici (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), on eggs of the Alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). - Environmental Entomology 8 (5): 814-815.
Bailey, SF (1957): The thrips of California Part I: Suborder Terebrantia. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 4, no. 5: 143-220.
Bhatti, J. S. (2006): The Classification of Terebrantia (Insecta) into Families. Oriental Insects 40: 339-375.
Boyd, ML & Lentz, GL (1999): Seasonal occurrence and abundance of the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera : Miridae) and thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on rapeseed in West Tennessee. - Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 16 (3): 171-178.
Braman, SK & Beshear, RJ (1994): Seasonality of predaceous plant bugs (Heteroptera, Miridae) and phytophagous thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) as influenced by host-plant phenology of native Azaleas (Ericales, Ericaceae). - Environmental Entomology 23 (3): 712-718.
Buntin, GD & Beshear, RJ (1995): Seasonal Abundance of Thrips (Thysanoptera) on winter small grains in Georgia. - Environmental Entomology 24 (5): 1216-1223.
Campbell, L., K. Robb, and D. Ullman (2006): The complete Tospovirus resource page. http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/tospovirus/welcome.htm.
Chellemi, DO, Funderburk, JE & Hall, DW (1994): Seasonal abundance of flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Species (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on wild plant species. - Environmental Entomology 23 (2): 337-342.
Childers, CC, Beshear, RJ, Frantz, G & Nl, M (2005): A review of thrips species biting man including records in Florida and Georgia between 1986-1997. - Florida Entomologist 88 (4): 447-451.
Cho, K, Walgenbach, JF & Kennedy, GG (2000): Daily and temporal occurrence of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on tomato. - Applied Entomology and Zoology 35 (2): 207-214.
Cho, KJ, Eckel, CS, Walgenbach, JF & Kennedy, GG (1995): Comparison of colored sticky traps for monitoring thrips populations (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in staked tomato fields. - Journal of Entomological Science 30 (2): 176-190.
Cho, KJ, Eckel, CS, Walgenbach, JF & Kennedy, GG (1995): Spatial distribution and sampling procedures for Frankliniella Spp (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in Staked Tomato. - Journal of Economic Entomology 88 (6): 1658-1665.
Cook, DR, Allen, CT, Burris, E, Freeman, BL, Herzog, GA, Lentz, GL, Leonard, BR & Reed, JT (2003): A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) species infesting cotton seedlings in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. - Journal of Entomological Science 38 (4): 669-681.
De Assis, FM, Stavisky, J, Reitz, SR, Deom, CM & Sherwood, JL (2005): Midgut infection by tomato spotted wilt virus and vector incompetence of Frankliniella tritici. - Journal of Applied Entomology 129 (9-10): 548-550.
Durant, JA, Roof, ME & Cole, CL (1994): Early-season incidence of thrips (Thysanoptera) on wheat, cotton, and 3 wild host-plant species in South-Carolina. - Journal of Agricultural Entomology 11 (1): 61-71.
Eckel, CS, Cho, KJ, Walgenbach, JF, Kennedy, GG & Moyer, JW (1996): Variation in thrips species composition in field crops and implications for tomato spotted wilt epidemiology in North Carolina. - Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata 78 (1): 19-29.
Enkegaard, A & Brodsgaard, HF (2000): Lasioseius fimetorum: a soil-dwelling predator of glasshouse pests ? - Biocontrol 45 (3): 285-293.
Faircloth, JC, Bradley, JR & Van Duyn, JW (2002): Effect of insecticide treatments and environmental factors on thrips populations, plant growth and yield of cotton. - Journal of Entomological Science 37 (4): 308-316.
Felland, CM, Teulon, DAJ, Hull, LA & Polk, DF (1995): Distribution and management of thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on nectarine in the Mid-Atlantic Region. - Journal of Economic Entomology 88 (4): 1004-1011.
Funderburk, J, Mound, L & Sharma, J (2007): Thysanoptera inhabiting native terrestrial orchids in northern Florida and southern Georgia. - Journal of Entomological Science 42 (4): 573-581.
Funderburk, J, Stavisky, J & Olson, S (2000): Predation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in field peppers by Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera : Anthocoridae). - Environmental Entomology 29 (2): 376-382.
Hansen, EA, Funderburk, JE, Reitz, SR, Ramachandran, S, Eger, JE & McAuslane, H (2003): Within-plant distribution of Frankliniella species (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) and Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera : Anthocoridae) in field pepper. - Environmental Entomology 32 (5): 1035-1044.
Khan, MFR & Griffin, RP (1999): Efficacy of insecticides at controlling insect pests of tomato in South Carolina. - Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 16 (3): 165-170.
Lewis, T. (1973): Thrips their biology, ecology and economic importance. Academic Press Inc., London Ltd. 349 pp.
Lewis, T (1997): Pest thrips in perspective, pp. 1-13. In Lewis, T [ed.] Thrips as Crop Pests. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 740 pp.
Matos, B & Obrycki, JJ (2004): Influence of thrips on bronzing of strawberry fruit. - Hortscience 39 (6): 1343-1345.
Matos, B & Obrycki, JJ (2004): Potential sources of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in Iowa. - Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 21 (1): 1-8.
McPherson, RM, Beshear, RJ & Culbreath, AK (1992): Seasonal abundance of thrips (Thysanoptera, suborders Terebrantia and Tubulifera) in Georgia Flue-Cured Tobacco and impact of management-practices on the incidence of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus. - Journal of Entomological Science 27 (3): 257-268.
McPherson, RM, Pappu, HR & Jones, DC (1999): Occurrence of five thrips species on flue-cured tobacco and impact on spotted wilt disease incidence in Georgia. - Plant Disease 83 (8): 765-767.
McPherson, RM & Riley, DC (2006): Monitoring thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) presence in flue-cured tobacco using yellow sticky traps. - Journal of Entomological Science 41 (2): 170-178.
Mitchell, FL & Smith, JW (1996): Influence of Verbesina encelioides (Asterales: Asteraceae) on thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia) populations and tomato spotted wilt virus epidemics in south Texas peanut fields. - Journal of Economic Entomology 89 (6): 1593-1600.
Momol, MT, Olson, SM, Funderburk, JE, Stavisky, J & Marois, JJ (2004): Integrated management of tomato spotted wilt on field-grown tomatoes. - Plant Disease 88 (8): 882-890.
Moritz G, Morris DC, Mound LA (2001): ThripsID - Pest thrips of the world. ACIAR and CSIRO Publishing Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, CDROM ISBN 1 86320 296 X.
Moritz G, Mound LA, Morris DC, Goldarazena A (2004): Pest thrips of the world - an identification and information system using molecular and microscopial methods. CBIT, University of Queensland,CDROM ISBN 1-86499-781-8.
Mound, LA (2002): The Thrips and Frankliniella genus groups: the phylogenetic significance of ctenidia, pp. 379-386. In Marullo, R & Mound, LA [eds.], Thrips and Tospoviruses: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Thysanoptera. Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra., Reggio de Calabria, Italy.
Mound, LA & Marullo, R (1996): The thrips of Central and South America: An Introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Associated Publishers, Gainesville.
Mound, LA & Kibby, G (1998): Thysanoptera: An identification guide, (2nd edition). CAB International, Wallingford and New York, 70pp.
Nakahara, S (1992): New synonyms of Frankliniella bondari and a review of the synonyms of F. cephalica (Thysanoptera, Thripidae). - Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100 (3): 415-417.
Nault, BA, Speese, J, Jolly, D & Groves, RL (2003): Seasonal patterns of adult thrips dispersal and implications for management in eastern Virginia tomato fields. - Crop Protection 22 (3): 505-512.
Navas, VES, Funderburk, JE, Beshear, RJ, Olson, SM & Mack, TP (1991): Seasonal patterns of Frankliniella Spp (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in tomato flowers. - Journal of Economic Entomology 84 (6): 1818-1822.
Navas, VES, Funderburk, JE, Mack, TP, Beshear, RJ & Olson, SM (1994): Aggregation indexes and sample-size curves for binomial sampling of flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Species (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on tomato. - Journal of Economic Entomology 87 (6): 1622-1626.
Navas, VES, Funderburk, JE, Olson, SM & Beshear, RJ (1991): Damage to tomato fruit by the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae). - Journal of Entomological Science 26 (4): 436-442.
Nickle, DA (2003): A checklist of commonly intercepted thrips (Thysanoptera) from Europe, the Mediterranean, and Africa at U.S. ports-of-entry (1983-1999). Part 1. Key to genera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 105: 80-99.
Nickle, DA (2004): Commonly intercepted thrips (Thysanoptera) from Europe, the Mediterranean, and Africa at U.S. ports-of-entry. Part II. Frankliniella Karny and Iridothrips Priesner (Thripidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 106: 438-452.
O'Donnell, CA, Mound, LA & Parrella, MP (2001): A multilevel identification system for thrips asscoiated with flower crops in North America. UC Davis (Thesis_I_III.pdf).
Northfield, TD, Paini, DR, Funderburk, JE & Reitz, SR (2008): Annual cycles of Frankliniella spp. (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) thrips abundance on North Florida uncultivated reproductive hosts: Predicting possible sources of pest outbreaks. - Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101 (4): 769-778.
Olson, MM & Roseland, CR (1991): Induction of the Coumarins Scopoletin and Ayapin in sunflower by Insect feeding stress and effects of Coumarins on the feeding of sunflower beetle (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). - Environmental Entomology 20 (4): 1166-1172.
Paini, DR, Funderburk, JE, Jackson, CT & Reitz, SR (2007): Reproduction of four thrips species (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) on uncultivated hosts. - Journal of Entomological Science 42 (4): 610-615.
Paini, DR, Funderburk, JE & Reitz, SR (2008): Competitive exclusion of a worldwide invasive pest by a native. Quantifying competition between two phytophagous insec?s on two host plant species. - Journal of Animal Ecology 77 (1): 184-190.
Palmer, JM, Mound, LA & Du Heaume, GJ (1989): 2. Thysanoptera, pp. 73. In Betts, CR [ed.], CIE Guides to Insects of Important to Man. CAB International, Wallingford.
Reitz, SR (2002): Seasonal and within plant distribution of Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in north Florida tomatoes. - Florida Entomologist 85 (3): 431-439.
Reitz, SR, Yearby, EL, Funderburk, JE, Stavisky, J, Momol, MT & Olson, SM (2003): Integrated management tactics for Frankliniella thrips (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) in field-grown pepper. - Journal of Economic Entomology 96 (4): 1201-1214.
Sakimura, K (1953): Frankliniella tritici, a Non-Vector of the Spotted Wilt Virus. - Journal of Economic Entomology 46 (5): 915-916.
Slosser, JE, Cole, CL, Boring, EP, Parajulee, MN & Idol, GB (2005): Thrips species associated with cotton in the northern texas rolling plains. - Southwestern Entomologist 30 (1): 1-7.
Stannard, LJ (1968): The thrips, or Thysanoptera, of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 29: 215-552.
Stavisky, J, Funderburk, J, Brodbeck, BV, Olson, SM & Andersen, PC (2002): Population dynamics of Frankliniella spp. and tomato spotted wilt incidence as influenced by cultural management tactics in tomato. - Journal of Economic Entomology 95 (6): 1216-1221.
Sweeden, MB & McLeod, PJ (1993): Seasonal occurrence of thrips (Thysanoptera) on cowpeas in Western Arkansas and Northeast Oklahoma. - Journal of Entomological Science 28 (4): 427-432.
Sweeden, MB, McLeod, PJ & Russell, WR (1994): Acephate effect on dryland and irrigated cowpeas when applied for thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and corn-earworm (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) Control. - Journal of Economic Entomology 87 (6): 1627-1631.
Weiss, MJ & Beshear, RJ (1987): Seasonal distribution of the Flower Thrips (Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) and Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on Safflower in Eastern Montana. - Canadian Entomologist 119 (4): 399-401.
Mound, LA (2005): Thysanoptera (Thrips) of the World - A Checklist. http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html