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Gynaikothrips ficorum
Fig. 1


Fig. 2


Fig. 3


Fig. 4


Fig. 5


Fig. 6


Fig. 7

Tergites 4-5

Fig. 8

Tergite 10

Fig. 9


Fig. 10



Fig. 1: 8 segmented antenna, magified III. and IV. segment
Fig. 2: Head dorsal, vertex and maxillary stylets
Fig. 3: Pronotum and anterior part of mesonotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotal sclerites
Fig. 5: Fore- and hindwings
Fig. 6: I. Tergite, pelta
Fig. 7: Tergites IV-V with two pairs of sigmoid wing retaining setae
Fig. 8: Tergite X of abdomen, tube

ITS-RFLP gel patterns (1&8 ladder, 2 PCR-product, 3 RSAI, 4 HaeIII, 5 MspI, 6 HinfI, 7 AluI)
Fig. 9: Primer pair CS249/CS250
Fig. 10: Primer pair O1/18J

Taxonomic Information

Gynaikothrips ficorum (Marchal, 1908)

Haplothrips blesai Plata, 1973
Gynaikothrips flavus Ishida, 1931
Leptothrips reticulatus Karny, 1912
Liothrips bakeri Crawford DL, 1910
Leptothrips flavicornis Bagnall, 1909
Phloeothrips ficorum Marchal, 1908

Common name:
Cuban laurel thrips

Present taxonomic position:
Family: Phlaeothripidae Uzel, 1895
Subfamily: Phlaeothripinae (Uzel) Priesner, 1928
Genus: Gynaikothrips Zimmermann, 1900


Species Recognition

General information about the genus Gynaikothrips:
These are large thrips with dark bodies, sometimes containing internal pigmentation, and eight antennal segments. The genus has one sense cone on antennal segment III and three (or 4) on segment IV and due to these characters is thought to be related to the genus Liothrips. Gynaikothrips differs in having setae on the pronotum that are not elongated and with the surface of the pronotum containing numerous irregular striae.

Typical character states of Gynaikothrips ficorum:

Body color
Mainly brown

Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment III - number of sense cones: 1
Segment IV - number of sense cones: 3
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and simple

Basal thirds of cheeks: without a pair of stout setae
Maxillary stylet position: about one third of head width apart
Postocular setae: shorter than distance of the setal base from the eye
Postocular setal apex: acute to bluntly acute
Maxillary bridge: absent
Cheeks: without one pair of stout setae in basal third

Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 1-3
Pronotum: with complex sculpture
Prosternal basantra: absent

Metanotum structure: with narrow longitudinal reticulations medially

Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
Forewing shape: parallel sided
Forewings: surface smooth, without veins, setae and microtrichia

Fore femur: without a strong, cylindrical tooth near the base

Abdominal segment X: complete tube in both sexes
Abdominal tergites: with curved wing-retaining setae



Life history:
This genus contains 40 species which all feed on leaves and produce leaf-galls, or leaf-rolls. Most of these species are found in the Oriental region on tropical or sub-tropical plant material. Life cycle from egg to adult is four to six weeks and all life stages can be found within the galls or rolls of the leaves.

Host plants:
Ficus microcarpa

Vector capacity:
None identified

Current known distribution:
Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Central and South America, North America

Additional notes:
The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum (Marchal), is well known around the world inducing leaf-galls on cultivated Ficus microcarpa (in temperate regions in tropical and semitropical greenhouses).


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