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Haplothrips leucanthemi
Fig. 1


Fig. 2


Fig. 3


Fig. 4


Fig. 5


Fig. 6


Fig. 7

Tergites 4-6

Fig. 8

Tergite 10


Fig. 1: Antenna (inset: IV. and V. antennal segment)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle, maxillary bridge
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: I. and II. tergite, pelta
Fig. 6: Fore- and hindwing
Fig. 7: Tergites IV - VI
Fig. 8: Tergite X

Taxonomic Information

Haplothrips leucanthemi (Schrank, 1781)

Zygothrips wyomingensis Watson, 1923
Haplothrips trifolii Priesner, 1919
Phloeothrips obscuricornis Reuter, 1909
Phloeothrips armatus Lindeman, 1887
Phloeothrips niger Osborn, 1883
Thrips leucanthemi Schrank, 1781

Common name:
Daisy, Black clover, Red clover or Statices thrips

Present taxonomic position:
Family: Phlaeothripidae Uzel, 1895
Subfamily: Phlaeothripinae (Uzel) Priesner, 1928
Genus: Haplothrips Amyot & Serville, 1843


Species Recognition

General information about the genus Haplothrips:
Most of the 200 species within this genus are macropterous and have duplicated fringe cilia on the forewing, with the forewing constricted medially and contain well developed paired prosternal basantra. The species in this group which contain single fringed cilia on the forewing belong to the subgenus Trybomiella. In addition, Haplothrips species have four sense cones on antennal segment IV, the head contains a well developed maxillary bridge, complete epimeral sutures on the pronotum, a triangular shaped pelta, and abdominal tergites II through VII exhibit two wing retaining setae.

Typical character states of Haplothrips leucanthemi:

Body color
Mainly brown

Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment III - number of sense cones: 2
Segment IV - number of sense cones: 4
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and simple

Basal thirds of cheeks: without a pair of stout setae
Maxillary stylet position: about one third of head width apart
Postocular setae: shorter than distance of the setal base from the eye
Postocular setal apex: acute to bluntly acute
Maxillary bridge: present
Cheeks: without one pair of stout setae in basal third

Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 1-4
Pronotum: with faint sculpture Prosternal basantra: present

Metanotum structure: weakly reticulate

Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
Forewing shape: constricted medially
Forewings: surface smooth, without veins, setae and microtrichia

Fore femur: without a strong, cylindrical tooth near the base

Abdominal segment X: complete tube in both sexes
Abdominal tergites: with curved wing-retaining setae



Life history:
This genus contains about 200 species which all live in flowers particularly composite flowers, rushes and sedges. Most of these species are found in the tropics of Europe, and Asia and their life cycle from egg to adult is not well known however, most life stages are found in the flowers mentioned above.

Host plants:
Forage legumes, Fabaceae, Asteraceae

Vector capacity:
None identified

Current known distribution:
Europe, North America, New Zealand (introduced)

Additional notes:
Haplothrips leucanthemi is commonly found breeding in Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. There is a unisexual Haplothrips form found in red clover that is considered to be H. nigra however, this is not well established and the character states separating these individuals are not entirely clear. Mound and Minaei (2007) discuss the character overlap and variation between these two species and that many H. niger specimens found in Britain have been re-identified as H. leucanthemi.


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