Fig. 1: Antenna (inset: V. and VIII. antennal segment)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle and pronotum
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Fore- and hindwing
Fig. 6: Tergites III - VI
Fig. 7: Tergites III and IV
Fig. 8: Tergite VIII
ITS-RFLP gel patterns (1&8 ladder, 2 PCR-product, 3 RSAI, 4 HaeIII, 5 MspI, 6 HinfI, 7 AluI)
Fig. 9: Primer pair CS249/CS250
Fig. 10: Primer pair O1/18J
Fig. 11: Primer pair P1/28Z
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche, 1833)
Dinurothrips rufiventris Girault, 1929
Heliothrips semiaureus Girault, 1928
Heliothrips angustior Priesner, 1923
Heliothrips ceylonicus Schmutz, 1913
Heliothrips abdominalis Reuter, 1891
Thrips adonidum Cook, 1874
Heliothrips adonidum Haliday, 1836
Thrips haemorrhoidalis Bouche, 1833
Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Panchaetothripinae Bagnall, 1912
Genus: Heliothrips Haliday, 1836
Species RecognitionGeneral information about the genus Heliothrips:
The three species within this genus are flattened dorsal ventrally and contain heavy reticulation. The head is wider than long and pointed anteriorly between the antennae. The antennae are eight-segmented and the terminal segment is long and pointed (needle-like). Antennal segments III and IV have simple sense cones and the pronotum does not have long setae. All of the species have narrow forewings with broad bases, the wings lack sculpture.
Typical character states of Heliothrip haemorrhoidales:
Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment IV - forked sensorium: scarcely extending beyond base of segment V
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and simple
Terminal antennal segments: very long, needle like
Head shape between compound eyes: distinctly prolonged
Sculptured reticles on head and pronotum: with no internal markings
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs: with strong reticulate sculpture, but sometimes irregular
Head posteriorly: constricted
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 0-3
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 0
Pronotum: with complex sculpture - with faint sculpture
Pronotum shape: rectangular
Sculptur of pronotum: without transverse striate sculpture
Mesothoracic endofurca: without median spinula
Metanotum: with campaniform sensilla
Metanotum major sclerite: with two major sclerites, metascutum and metascutellum
Metanotum median area: with at least some equiangular reticulation
Metathoracic endofurca: transverse, sometimes with simple median spinula
Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing: close to or fused to costal vein
Forewing anterior margin: with cilia but no long setae
Forewing color: univormly pale, with posterior margin shaded or weakly shaded
Forewing costal setae at middle of wing: minute and scarcely extending beyond wing margin
Forewing first vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia: straight, no undulations
Forewing second vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced or incomplete, with setae not closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface: not reticulate
Forewings: with veins, setae and microtrichia
Mid and hind tarsi: with one segment
Abdominal segment X: never tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal tergites: without curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair: longer than distance between their bases
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis is a slow moving insect requiring prodding to take a few steps across the leaf. The larvae are small and pale in color compared to the adults and can be found carrying a small black fecal drop on the tip of their abdomen. This drop is thrown in defense against predators. Incubation time from egg to adult can take one week to one month dependent upon seasonal temperatures.
Polyphagous, leaf feeding.
Can transmit Puccinia graminus uredia on cereal.
Current known distribution:
Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Central and South America, Europe, North America
Breeding on the leaves of a wide range of plants in the greenhouse and landscape, but not on herbs or soft leaves. Primarily feeds on the underside of leaves. Leaves become distorted, curled under, silvered and turn brown. Plants become stunted, flowers become discolored. Fruit surfaces become bronzed.
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