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Scirtothrips dorsalis
Fig. 1

Antenna

Fig. 2

Head

Fig. 3

Pronotum

Fig. 5

Pteronotum

Fig. 5

Wings

Fig. 6

Sternites 4-6

Fig. 7

Tergites 4-6

Fig. 8

Tergites 8-9

Figures

Fig.1: Antenna (inset: III. andIV. antennal segment)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Fore- and hindwing
Fig. 6: Sternites IV - VI
Fig. 7: Tergites IV- VI
Fig. 8:Tergites VIII-X

Taxonomic Information

Species:
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, 1919

Synonyms:
Caliothrips minutissimus Faure, 1962
Scirtothrips padmae Ramakrishna, 1942
Scirtothrips andreae Hood, 1935
Neophysopus fragariae Girault, 1927 
Anaphothrips oligochaetus Karny, 1925  
Anaphothrips andreae Karny, 1925 
Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, 1919 
Heliothrips minutissimus Bagnall, 1919 

Common name:
Chilli thrips
Assam thrips

Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Thripinae (Stephens) Karny, 1921
Genus: Scirtothrips Shull, 1909

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Species Recognition

General information about the genus Scirtothrips:
This genus contains about 60 species all having rows of microtrichia on the lateral sides of the tergites and a complete comb on tergite VIII. These are small, pale yellow thrips with eight segmented antennae and segments III and IV have forked sense cones. The pronotum on these thrips is closely and transversely striate and most have spotted areas interrupting the striae. The forewings are narrow with only a few distal setae on the first vein and a few apical setae on the hind vein.

Typical character states of Scirtothrips dorsalis:

Body color
Mainly pale or yellow,with some darker markings

Antennae
Number of antennal segments: 8
Segment IV - forked sensorium: scarcely extending beyond base of segment V
Segments II and III shape:more or less symmetric
Segments III & IV sensoria:emergent and forked
Base of sensorium on antennal segment VI:no more than 2 times as wide as base of nearest seta
Terminal antennal segments:rarely elongate

Head:
Distance between bases of ocellar setae III:greater than width of first ocellus
Head shape between compound eyes:not prolonged
Ocellar setae III on head:arising between hind ocelli, or behind tangent of anterior margin of hind ocelli
Postocular setae I:present
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs:without strong reticulate sculpture
Ocellar setae I in front of anterior ocellus: present

Prothorax
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 0-3
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 1-2
Pronotum shape:rectangular

Mesothorax
Mesothoracic endofurca:with median spinula

Metathorax
Metanotal median area sculptured lines:transverse at anterior, but forming irregular longitudinal reticulations on posterior half
Metanotal median setae position:arising behind anterior margin
Metanotum:with campaniform sensilla
Metanotum major sclerite:with two major sclerites, metascutum and metascutellum
Metanotum median area:with no equiangular reticulation
Metanotum sculpture:without dominant sculptured triangle medially
Metathoracic endofurca: transverse, sometimes with simple median spinula

Wings
Wings:present and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing:distinct from costal vein
Forewing anterior margin:with setae and cilia but cilia longer than setae
Forewing color:uniformly light brown oruniformly pale or weakly shaded
Forewing costal fringe of cilia:arising at anterior margin of wing
Forewing costal setae at middle of wing:shorter than median width of wing
Forewing first vein setal row: incomplete, with setae not closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia:straight, no undulations
Forewing second vein setal row:incomplete, with setae not closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface:not reticulate
Forewings:with veins, setae and microtrichia

Legs
Fore tibial apex:not extending around fore tarsus
Mid and hind tarsi:with two segments

Abdomen:
Abdominal segment X:never tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal sternite III of female:without glandular areas
Abdominal sternite VII:with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite VII median marginal setae:arising at margin
Abdominal sternites IV , V and VI:with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternites V & VI microtrichia:extending fully across discal area
Abdominal tergites:without curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair:longer or shorterthan distance between their bases
Abdominal tergites V-VII:without paired ctenidia, sometimes with irregular microtrichia
Markings on tergites IV to VI:with shaded area medially and antecostal ridges dark
Setae on abdominal tergite X:slender
Surface of lateral thirds of abdominal tergites:with many regular rows of fine microtrichia
Ctenidia on tergite VIII:not present, but groups of microtrichia
Tergite VIII posteromarginal comb of microtrichia:present, complete medially
Tergite VIII posteromarginal microtrichia:long, slender and regular

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Biology

Life history:
The developmental time from egg to adult has been studied in Scirtothrips perseae by Mark Hoddle (2002) who examined the developmental time under several temperatures ranging from 15C to 30C (Hoddle, 2002). In summary the range for development time was 18 to 49 days. Naturally, the developmental time will very between species and with different temperatures and environmental conditions. Scirtothrips dorsalis is capable of producing 18 generations per year in areas where the temperature fluctuations are moderate e.g. Within the US: FL, TX, AZ, CA and NV (Spears, 2006).

Host plants:
Polyphagous

Vector capacity:
Peanut but necrosis virus (PBNV)
Peanut chlorotic fan virus (PCFV)
Peanut yellow spot virus (PYSV).

Current known distribution:
Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand

Additional notes:
All of the members of this group feed on the leaves of their plant hosts and are quite cryptic in habit however, Scirtothrips dorsalis feeds on the flowers, fruit, stems and leaves of its host plants. Serious infestations of this pest will cause complete defoliation of the plant material.

Bibliography

Amin, PW, Reddy, DVR, Ghanekar, AM & Reddy, MS (1981): Transmission of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, the causal agent of Bud Necrosis of Peanut, by Scirtothrips dorsalis and Frankliniella schultzei. - Plant Disease 65 (8): 663-665.
Bailey, SF (1957):
The thrips of California Part I: Suborder Terebrantia. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 4, no. 5: 143-220.

Bailey, SF (1964): A revision of the genus Scirtothrips Shull (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Hilgardia 35: 329–362.
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Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) a new record for Puerto Rico. - Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 91 (1-2): 49-52.
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The developmental and reproductive biology of Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: A new avocado pest in California. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92, 279-285.
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Impact of habitat manipulation on mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum to control Scirtothrips dorsalis and Polyphagotarsonemus latus of chilli. - Biocontrol 53 (2): 403-412.
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Okada, T & Kudo, I (1982): Overwintering sites and stages of Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in Tea Fields. - Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 26 (3): 177-182.
Rugman-Jones, PF, Weeks, AR, Hoddle, MS & Stouthamer, R (2005): Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the avocado thrips Scirtothrips perseae (Thysanoptera : Thripidae). - Molecular Ecology Notes 5 (3): 644-646.
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Links:
Mound, LA (2005): Thysanoptera (Thrips) of the World - A Checklist. http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html

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