Fig. 1: Antenna (inset: III. and IV. antennal segment)
Fig. 2: Head dorsal with ocellar triangle
Fig. 3: Pronotum
Fig. 4: Meso- and metanotum
Fig. 5: Fore- and hindwing
Fig. 6: Sternites VI and VII
Fig. 7: Tergites V and VI
Fig. 8: Tergites VIII and IX
ITS-RFLP gel patterns (1&8 ladder, 2 PCR-product, 3 RSAI, 4 HaeIII, 5 MspI, 6 HinfI, 7 AluI)
Fig. 09: Primer pair O1/18J
Fig. 10: Primer pair P1/28Z
Fig. 11: Primer pair 18SMP/28SMP
Fig. 12: Primer pair TODA1/TODA2
Thrips major Uzel, 1895
Thrips permutatus zur Strassen, 1971
Thrips ponticus zur Strassen, 1970
Thrips phytolaccae Priesner, 1951
Physothrips inaequalis Bagnall, 1928
Thrips banatica Priesner, 1927
Thrips dorsimaculata Priesner, 1927
Thrips ustulata Priesner, 1927
Thrips sarothamni Priesner, 1925
Thrips corticina Priesner, 1925
Thrips adusta Uzel, 1895
Thrips gracilicornis Uzel, 1895
Present taxonomic position:
Family: Thripidae Stephens, 1829
Subfamily: Thripinae (Stephens) Karny, 1921
Genus: Thrips Linneaeus, 1758
Species RecognitionGeneral information about the genus Thrips:
There are about 280 species currently recognized in the genus Thrips making this genus one of the largest groups within the Thysanoptera. They are separated from other genera in having the following characters, antenna comprising 7 or 8 segments with segments III and IV containing forked sense cones, the head has two pairs of ocellar setae (II and III), pair I is missing, the pronotum with four long setae on the posterior margin, forewing 1st vein usually has a row of setae interrupted by gaps, on lateral sides of abdominal tergites V to VIII there are paired ctenidia, abdominal tergite VIII with ctenidia posterior to the spiracles.
Typical character states of Thrips major:
Number of antennal segments: 7
Segment IV - forked sensorium: scarcely extending beyond base of segment V
Segments II and III shape: more or less symmetric
Segments III & IV sensoria: emergent and forked
Base of sensorium on antennal segment VI: no more than 2 times as wide as base of nearest seta
Terminal antennal segments: rarely elongate
Distance between bases of ocellar setae III: greater than width of first ocellus
Head shape between compound eyes: not prolonged
Ocellar setae III on head: arising on anterior margin of, or in front of, ocellar triangle
Postocular setae I: absent
Surface of head, pronotum and fore legs: without strong reticulate sculpture
Ocellar setae I in front of anterior ocellus: absent
Number of pairs of elongate pronotal setae: 0-3
Number of pairs of elongate posteroangular pronotal setae: 2
Pronotum shape: rectangular
Number of pairs of pronotum posteromarginal minor setae: 3-4
Number of pairs of pronotum anteromarginal minor setae: 3-4
Mesothoracic endofurca: with median spinula
Metanotal median area sculptured lines: transverse at anterior, but forming irregular longitudinal reticulations on posterior half
Metanotal median setae length: longer than lateral metanotal setae
Metanotal median setae position: arising behind anterior margin
Metanotum: without campaniform sensilla
Metanotum major sclerite: with two major sclerites, metascutum and metascutellum
Metanotum median area: with at least some or without equiangular reticulation
Metanotum sculpture: without dominant sculptured triangle medially
Metathoracic endofurca: transverse, sometimes with simple median spinula
Wings: present and more than half as long as abdomen
First vein of forewing: distinct from costal vein
Forewing anterior margin: with setae and cilia but cilia longer than setae
Forewing clavus: terminal veinal seta longer than subterminal seta
Forewing color: uniformly light brown or pale or weakly shaded
Forewing costal fringe of cilia: arising at anterior margin of wing
Forewing costal setae at middle of wing: shorter than median width of wing
Forewing first vein setal row: incomplete, with setae not closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing posterior margin cilia: undulated near apex
Forewing second vein setal row: complete, with setae closely and uniformly spaced
Forewing surface: not reticulate
Forewings: with veins, setae and microtrichia
Fore tarsus inner apex: without tooth
Fore tibial apex: not extending around fore tarsus - with small curved claw ventrolaterally
Mid and hind tarsi: with two segments
Pleurotergal discal setae: absent
Abdominal pleurotergites: with many rows of fine microtrichia
Abdominal segment X: never tubular, longitudinally incomplete ventrally in both sexes
Abdominal sternite II: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite III of female: without glandular areas
Abdominal sternite VII: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Abdominal sternite VII median marginal setae: arising in front of margin
Abdominal sternites IV , V and VI: with marginal setae but no discal setae
Number of lateral marginal setae on abdominal tergite II: 3
Abdominal tergites: without curved wing-retaining setae
Abdominal tergites IV & V median setal pair: much shorter than distance between their bases
Abdominal tergites V-VII: with pair of ctenidia laterally
Number of discal setae on sternite V: 0
Setae on abdominal tergite X: slender
Surface of lateral thirds of abdominal tergites: without regular rows of fine microtrichia
Ctenidia on tergite VIII: posteromesad to spiracle
Tergite VIII posteromarginal comb of microtrichia: present laterally, incomplete medially
Tergite VIII posteromarginal microtrichia: short and irregular in length
Lines of sculpture on pleurotergite II: with ciliate microtrichia
As with other thrips species the life cycle from egg to adult is dependent on temperature. The full cycle can take about 15 days (Lewis, 1973) to over a month and adults may live for more than one month producing several generations in one year depending on seasonal weather. With greenhouse temperatures the developmental time from egg to adult can decrease to about one week.
Current known distribution:
This species was introduced into the North America from Europe and is thought to be closely related to T. fuscipennis (Gentile and Bailey 1968).
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